This Guide will help you to understand the basic concept of computer system networking
So, what is computer system networking? To the uninitiated this term may sound intimidating but you may have already come across it or have even used it either at work or at home. For those new to computer networking, simply put a network refers to a system where two or more computers are connected to each other. This is done so people can share thing like information or computer hardware like a printer for instance.
The history of computer networking started in the 1940s, and we have George Stibitz- known as the fathers of modern digital computer- to thank for that. He simply used a twelve machine to forward data problems from Dartmouth College to his complex number calculator” situated in New York and he was able to receive the results back in similar means.
In 1965, Thomas me rill and Lawrence g Roberts modified the wide area network (WAN) which served as the main ground for producing the telephone switch. The mechanism devised by these people revolutionized what we have today.
There are several things you need to setup a computer network. The most basic system consists of a protocol, NIC or network interface cards, cable and hub.
A protocol is a set of rules that the computers have to follow in order for them to “speak the same languages” for example: – http is protocol, due to this you will be able to access websites from all over the world on your computer.
Network Interface Card (NIC) are cards that you put at the back or side of a computer. This allows the computer to communicate with each other. A cable id simply a wire that connects the computers together and the hub is a device that controls traffic, for example, information that one computer sends to another.
Now this is list of item for a standard network. You are going to need a different set of devices if you are to go for wireless networking.
How does a computer network work?
Let’s say for instance, you want to send information from your desktop to your laptop. The NIC on your pc transfer the file thorough the cable into the hub. The Hub transfers the data to your laptop. If each of the units uses the same protocol then the information is accepted by your laptop computer and it will able to open file you just sent.
Computer system networking simply a compilation of hardware mechanisms and computers that are linked by communication outlets resulting to sharing of a data and information through the web. One good example of this is the renowned social networking site like face book , millions of people log on to face book to be updated with the latest trends and issues all over the globe, sending information from one person to next . This creates an array network.
Importance of computer system networking
With the invention of computers came the evolution of computer networks – the hottest development crucial to information technology after the internet. If the networking system hasn’t invented, the world will still be sending data, messages and other information via pigeon carriers.
What most people don’t know about computer networking support is that a lot of arduous work must be put into facilitating, fabricating and implementing the information needed for a network to stream. In media communication, having computer network support is a necessity. The network, being the ultimate ground for information dissemination and data gathering, must always be extant at all cost.
Most online businesses and media conglomerates rely on computer network support to establish their main objectives with their audience. They hire a specialist that has an extensive online training expertise on customer relationship management – to ensure better management and facilitation of raw information or data.
It’s important to have specialist who has an extensive CRM training to conduct manual routine checks to ensure that proper information dissemination and maintenance is accomplished.
Almost everything is in network nowadays. The media conglomerates, top organization, businesses and political sector are trusting on computer system networking to do most of their work for them when it comes to establishing links with the target audience.
Types of computer networking
There are different types of computer networking that you may need for your home or office. To begin with you have the option of a wired or wireless commuter network with different operating system. These types of networks differ. A wired computer will have copper or fiber optic cabling running between computers while a wireless network use radio waves / or microwaves to maintain communication channels.
A client/server network works by using client devices. Typically PC with network software applications installed that request and receives information over the network. The server device will usually store files and database and includes more complex applications like websites. These devices often feature high-powered central processors, more memory and large disk drives then the client devices.
In addition to these types of networks there are also types of area networks. These are categorized by their scope or scale. Some are a network types include:
Local Area Network:
LAN is basic and important part in computer system networking where all the units you connect are located in one place. There are two types of LAN, Peer to Peer and client server network .a peer to peer network is where two or more computers are connected to each other directly. For example computer 1 is connected to computer 2 and computer 2 is connected to 3 or so on. The computers are dependent of each other or if one unit experiences problems, the others simply won’t able to connect to each other.
The client sever type is where all computers are connected to a main unit. This is more convents because if one computer has problem, the other won’t be affected. You will still be able to exchange data.
Wide area Network:
best example of wan is internet, as you can see this is very large type of network allowing millions of users to connect with each other. Now a day’s more and more people are looking to computer network even at home. This affords people more convenience and makes day to day life more efficient.
Wireless Local area Network:
WLAN actually based on wireless technology developed on local computer systems within a limited area such as office, school etc.
Metropolitan area Network:
MAN spinning a physical area larger then LAN but smaller then WAN, such a city .A MAN is typically owned and operated by single entity such as a government body or large corporation.
Campus area network:
CAN spinning multiple LANs but smaller then MAN such as on a university or local business group
Storage area network:
SAN connects to data storage devices though high speed network technology like fiber channel
System area network:
it links high performance computers with high speed connections in a cluster configuration
LAN and WAN were the original categories of area networks but through the evolution of technology we have been forced to keep adding more and more types due to ever-changing field.
A LAN network will connect devices over a relatively short distance. This may include a building, school or home that will contain a single LAN. Sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs and on the other hand a LAN may span a group of nearby buildings. A WAN spans a large distance. The internet is the largest WAN as its covers the earth.
A network device called a router will connect LAN to WAN. These are typically not owned by any one organization like LANs but are under a distributed ownership and management system.
Hard wired Service
Of the two means of establishing and accessing a computer network hard weird service is the oldest, and often the most dependable. Below are the three most common wired technologies available in today’s computer system networking market. Twisted pair wire is the most common means of telecommunication, which includes computer networking.
Coaxial cable is extensively used for office buildings, work sites as well as television systems. The advantage of coaxial cable is in its transmission speed cable can transmit over 500 million bits per second and is highly dependable.
Optical fiber, fiber optic, is a relatively new type of hard ware system. Fiber optic doesn’t use electricity to transmit information like the previous two dominated it uses light and can transmit in the trillions of bits per second. Moreover electromagnetic radiations like from the sun’s solar flares, does not iterate fiber-optic transitions like other services are susceptible to.
Terrestrial microwave uses a transmitter/receiver system of annotators to transmit information. However the transition distance, although very secure, is limited to about thirty miles. This network service is used extensively by local police departments.
Communication satellites uses microwave radio signals to transmit information. These satellites orbit the earth and as they do they receive and send signal of communication. However, the signals to end from these satellites can be affected by such things as the sun’s solar flare activities.
Cellular and PC’s transmission systems utilize a combination of communication technologies such as relay antenna and even satellites. However, they use is restricted by Geographic locations, dependent on where the antenna might be located.
Wireless LAN is perhaps the most popular means for computer system networking communications. It utilizes both a high frequency and low frequency technology. Similar to that of digital communications and for computer networks as well.
wireless LAN’s is generally the choice because it can handle communications between multiple devices more easily and with minimal interruptions.
Setting up a Home network:
There are some great programs out there that will walk you through setting up a home network in no time. You do not have to be a network engineer and it takes little knowledge of how the network actually works. You basically only have to the systems you wish to connect or link together in the network, an internet connection and the ability to follow simple instructions.
If you are setting up a wireless internet connection you will not have to worry about running cables from one computer to next and the only thing that will be done are some simple changes in the networking section may be different according to operating system of each computer. You can create a secured connection that is protected with the password to ensure that you do not have an open connection to outsiders who wish to snoop through your shared files.
You get the option on each system to choose what you want to share and what you do not. You can create a folder for computer system networking purpose only and put it on virtual drive, this way no one can enter the actual computer’s hard drive, just the file and what is stored on it.
The process for computer networks is simple and easy to do and can make a multiple computer home run much smoother.
Future of computer networking:
Networks of the future will be world apart from today’s relatively mundane once that simply carry packets from one end to the other. With the explosion of peer-to-peer (pc to pc direct data transfer) high definition video streaming and ubiquitous computing projects like internet are looking at a scenario where even high bulbs and toasters will have an internet protocol (IP) address in affect making household compliance capable of accessing as well as being controlled by the internet. Why do these household appliances need to be connected to the internet or even be controlled trough the internet?
For starters efficient usages of energy and centralized control, following that train of thought we are looking at a scenario where even light bulbs and toasters will have IP address and will be hooked on to the internet- networks as we understand them today may be overwhelmed by the load of data.
This has naysayers saying how the extra data is going to clog the data pipes flooding them with data rendering them useless whereas others have grave security concerns about the usages of data. future of computer system networking definitely different and will most probably work on different protocols. Such networks will not need full time chaperoning which is the job of many system administrators.
These network have been named adaptive networks; their job will be to provide a personalized experience for every user, with minimum maintenance ,adaptive networks will also seamlessly support different applications like voice over internet protocol (VOIP) video conferencing, video surveillance etc.
Wireless computing on demand and any other new applications that are developed, currently, most networks have a one- size fits all philosophy when it comes to applications and when newer demands start to rise on the network. It starts showing signs of an imminent breakdown. Security is also an important aspect, and future networks will be able to detect security attacks and take steps to fight back, very much like the immune system in our body.
The scenario seems very utopian, but already the pro curve networking initiative from the networking arm of HP has a neat solution that will make the networks of future “think” the way they are supposed to each port )access path) on the router or switch will have individual silicon chips that would monitor the traffic flow of the network. So one chip mange your toaster and other your computer and the third your TV.
These mini processors will have software installed on them to optimize the running of each and every device connected to them and because the software is programmable ports can easily switch from one application to other according to demand.Such computer system networking architecture will ensure that available capacity is for all these bandwidth hungry applications.
Another big advantage for this decentralized architecture is that there will be no single choke point in the network, therefore ensuring that even in case of a disaster, some part of the network will always up and running. Contrast with today scenario where the networks are as strong as their weakest link-hubs, routers and switches case and point being a ship’s anchor gone astray disconnected most of the middle –east and Asia
There are different topologies of a computer network. A topology defines the physical layout or a design of a network. These topologies’ are star topology, bus topology, mesh topology etc. in star topology each computer in network is directly connected with centralized device known as hub or switch. If any computers get problem in start topology then it doesn’t affect the other computers in the network.
There are different standard and devices in computer system networking. The most commonly used standard for local area network in Ethernet. Key device in computer network are hub. Switch, router, modem and access point etc. A router is used to connect two logically and physically different networks. All the communication on the internet is based on the router. Hub/switch used to connect the computers in local area network.
Hopefully, in this article you may have learn t that what is computer network is, how important it is in our lives, what are different network devices, standards, topologies and communication types.